Table of contents

Content Outline

Focusing on the innovative and fundamental aspects of additive manufacturing for construction, 3D Build 2023 will be run as a top scientific workshop offering lectures and seminars, meetings with leading researchers in the field, demonstrations of cutting-edge equipment, as well as an introduction to research through a supervised project. The quality of the work undertaken and your scientific potential will be assessed.

Student projects will be guided throughout the workshop by a constant reflection on the form-material-machine interaction in the continuum “digital design-manufacturing”.

You will be initiated to an integrative computational design approach and robotic additive fabrication for complex geometries of architectural elements and/or spaces. The designed result will be printed out by an automated process with printable materials that you will be taught to formulate.

  • 22 hScientific lectures & workshops
  • 15 hScientific research project
  • 17 hCultural visits & events
  •  2 h A French Speaking World
  •  1 h Haut-de-France: A dynamic environment for researchers
  •  3 h Welcome & closing sessions


Additive Manufacturing,
Robotic Fabrication,
Computational Design,
Complex Surfaces,
Parametric Design,
Mixture Proportioning,
Recycled Materials.

Programme At A Glance

Please note: this programme may be subject to minor modifications.

Scientific Lectures

Minor modifications to the programme may occur.

List of lectures

Scientific Research Project

Designed to facilitate your admission to doctoral programmes in France, the Scientific Research Project will require both personal and teamwork with the help of theoretical and practical teachings. The project will involve methodological courses and mini-lectures, and at the end of 3D Build 2023, you will be able to set up a research problem, draft a state-of-the-art and write a bibliography on a topic that will emerge from your work. Each student will participate in the printing of a prototype, and the assessment will cover the whole process from design to printing leading to a final project defence in front of the scientific board.

  1. Seminars
    C1: Formulation (Civil Engineering). Composition of a Printable Mortar: Choice of Materials, Characterisation and Design of an Ecological Printable Mortar for Given Specifications.
    C2: Conception (Architecture). Design Session: Parametric Design of Complex Shapes for Additive Manufacturing.
  2. 3D Printing Sessions (C3)
    Preparation of Materials, Mixing, Pumping, Printing of the Shapes. The printing will be made with a mobile robot provided by Polytech Lille.
  3. Restitution
    Presentation of the designed shape/mortar; Printing of the selected projects; Production of a poster documenting the whole process. During the conception phase, each student will have to identify and formulate a research problem that will also be assessed.
You will have every opportunity to contact teachers/researchers with a view to identify a research project; assistance will be provided in maintaining contact in order to finalise the project up to enrolment in the doctoral or postdoctoral programme.

Literature in Architecture

1. I. Agustí-Juan and G. Habert. Environmental Design Guidelines for Digital Fabrication. Journal of Cleaner Production, 142:2780–2791, 2017.
2. H. Bier. Robotic Building, Springer International Publishing, 2018.
3. S. Bhooshan, T. Van Mele, and P. Block. Equilibrium-Aware Shape Design for Concrete Printing. Humanizing Digital Reality, pages 493–508, 2017.
4. F. Bos, R. Wolfs, Z. Ahmed, and T. Salet. Additive Manufacturing of Concrete in Construction: Potentials and Challenges of 3D Concrete Printing. Virtual and Physical Prototyping, 2759(October):1–17, 2016.
5. F. Bos, R. Wolfs, Z. Ahmed, and T. Salet. First RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication – Digital Concrete 2018, volume 19. Springer International Publishing, 2019.
6. H. Brooks. A Review of State-of-the-Art Large-Sized Foam Cutting Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing Technologies. Rapid Prototyping Journal, 16(5):318–327, 2010.
7. R. A. Buswell, R. C. Soar, A. G. F. Gibb, and A. Thorpe. Freeform Construction: Megascale Rapid Manufacturing for Construction. Automation in Construction, 16(2):224–231, 2007.
8. C. B. Costanzi, Z. Y. Ahmed, H. R. Schipper, F. P. Bos, U. Knaack, and R. J. M. Wolfs. Automation in Construction 3D Printing Concrete on Temporary Surfaces: The Design and Fabrication of a Concrete Shell Structure. Automation in Construction, 94(August 2017):395–404, 2018.
9. T. Craipeau, T. Lecompte, F. Toussaint, and A. Perrot. First RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication – Digital Concrete 2018, volume 19. Springer International Publishing, 2019.
10. F. Hamidi, F. Aslani. Additive Manufacturing of Cementitious Composites: Materials, Methods, Potentials, and Challenges in Construction and Building Materials. Elsevier, 2019.
11. Huang, S.H., Liu, P., Mokasdar, A. et al. Int J Adv Manuf Technol, 2013. 67: 1191.
12. IAAC, Small Robots Printing Big Structures, Minibuilder by IAAC, 2014.
13. A. Jakupovic. Mini Builders Project – Report, IAAC.
14. B. Khoshnevis. Automated Construction of Towers and Columns. 1, 2018.
15. E. Lloret, A. R. Shahab, M. Linus, R. J. Flatt, F. Gramazio, M. Kohler, and S. Langenberg. Complex Concrete Structures: Merging Existing Casting Techniques with Digital Fabrication. CAD Computer Aided Design, 60:40–49, 2015.
16. R. Mathur. 3D Printing in Architecture. International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology, Vol. 3 Issue 7, 2016, ISSN 2348 – 7968.
17. B. Panda, N. Ahamed, N. Mohamed, Y. Wei, D. Tay, and M. J. Tan. First RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication – Digital Concrete 2018, volume 19. Springer International Publishing, 2019.
18. J. Pegna. Application of Cementitious Bulk Materials to Site Processed Freeform Construction. 6th Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) Symposium, pages 39–45, 1995.
19. J. Pegna. Exploratory Investigation of Solid Freeform Construction. Automation in Construction, 5(5):427–437, 1997.
20. M. Popescu, M. Rippmann, T. V. Mele, and P. Block. Automated Generation of Knit Patterns for Non-Developable Surfaces (Aboumain 2010), 2017.
21. L. Reiter, T. Wangler, N. Roussel, and R. J. Flatt. The Role of Early Age Structural Buildup in Digital Fabrication with Concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 112(May):86–95, 2018.
22. F. Scotto, F. Gramazio, and M. Kohler. First RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication – Digital Concrete 2018. 19:299–310, 2019.
23. A. Szabo, L. Reiter, and E. Lloret-Fritschi. First RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication – Digital Concrete 2018, volume 19. Springer International Publishing, 2019.
24. Teymouri. Potentialities and Restrictions of Construction 3D Printing. Bachelor Thesis. Karelia University of Applied Sciences, 2017.
25. T. Wangler and R. J. Flatt. Correction to: First RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication – Digital Concrete 2018. Springer International Publishing, 2018.
26. P. Wu, J. Wang, and X. Wang. A Critical Review of the Use of 3-D Printing in the Construction Industry. Automation in Construction, 68:21–31, 2016.
27. X. Zhang, M. Li, J. H. Lim, Y. Weng, Y. W. D. Tay, H. Pham, and Q. C. Pham. Large-Scale 3D Printing by a Team of Mobile Robots. Automation in Construction, 95(August):98–106, 2018.

Literature in Civil Engineering

1. N. Roussel, M. R. Geiker, F. Dufour, L. N. Thrane, and P. Szabo. Computational Modeling of Concrete Flow: General Overview. Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 1298–1307, 2007.
2. A. Perrot, T. Lecompte, H. Kheli, C. Brumaud, J. Hot, and N. Roussel. Cement and Concrete Research Yield stress and Bleeding of Fresh Cement Pastes. vol. 42, pp. 937–944, 2012.
3. N. Khalil, G. Aouad, K. El Cheikh, and S. Rémond. Use of calcium sulfoaluminate cements for setting control of 3D-printing mortars. Construction and Building Materials, vol. 157, pp. 382–391, Dec. 2017.
4. K. El Cheikh, S. Rémond, N. Khalil, and G. Aouad. Numerical and Experimental Studies of Aggregate Blocking in Mortar Extrusion. Construction and Building Materials, vol. 145, pp. 452–463, 2017.
5. D. Lootens, P. Jousset, L. Martinie, N. Roussel, and R. J. Flatt. Cement and Concrete Research Yield Stress During Setting of Cement Pastes from Penetration Tests. Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 401–408, 2009.
6. N. Roussel. Correlation Between Yield Stress and Slump?: Comparison Between Numerical Simulations and Concrete Rheometers Results. pp. 501–509, 2006.
7. D. Marchon, S. Kawashima, H. Bessaies-bey, S. Mantellato, and S. Ng. Cement and Concrete Research Hydration and Rheology Control of Concrete for Digital Fabrication?: Potential Admixtures and Cement Chemistry. Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 112, no. May, pp. 96–110, 2018.
8. R. J. M. Wolfs, F. P. Bos, and T. A. M. Salet. Cement and Concrete Research Early Age Mechanical Behaviour of 3D Printed Concrete?: Numerical Modelling and Experimental Testing. Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 106, no. February, pp. 103–116, 2018.
9. T. Wangler, E. Lloret, L. Reiter, N. Hack, F. Gramazio, and M. Kohler. Digital Concrete?: Opportunities and Challenges. pp. 67–75, 2016.
10. R. A. Buswell, W. R. L. De Silva, S. Z. Jones, and J. Dirrenberger. Cement and Concrete Research 3D Printing Using Concrete Extrusion?: A Roadmap for Research. Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 112, no. May, pp. 37–49, 2018.
11. N. Roussel. Cement and Concrete Research Rheological Requirements for Printable Concretes. Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 112, no. May, pp. 76–85, 2018.
12. L. Reiter, T. Wangler, N. Roussel, and R. J. Flatt. Cement and Concrete Research, The Role of Early Age Structural Build-Up in Digital Fabrication with Concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 112, no. May, pp. 86–95, 2018.
13. T. Lecompte, A. Perrot, V. Picandet, and H. Bellegou. Cement and Concrete Research Cement-Based Mixes?: Shearing Properties and Pore Pressure, vol. 42, pp. 139–147, 2012.
14. I. Hager, A. Golonka, R. Putanowicz. 3D Printing of Buildings and Building Components as the Future of Sustainable Construction?. Procedia Engineering, 151, 292–299, 2016.
15. T. Le, J. Webster, R. Buswell, S. Austin, A. Gibb, T. Thorpe. Fabricating Construction Components Using Layered Manufacturing Technology. Glob. Innov. Constr. Conf., Loughborough University, pp. 13–16, 2009
16. Z. Malaeb, H. Hachem, A. Tourbah, T. Maalouf, N. El Zarwi, F. Hamzeh. 3D Concrete Printing: Machine and Mix Design 3D Concrete Printing: Machine and Mix Design, no. October 2016, 2015.
17. T.T. Le, S.A. Austin, S. Lim, R.A. Buswell, A. G. F. GibbT., and T. Thorpe. Mix Design and Fresh Properties for High-Performance Printing Concrete. Materials and Structures. 45 (8) (2012) 1221–1232.
18. P. Wu, J. Wang, X. Wang. A Critical Review of the Use of 3D Printing in the Construction Industry. Automation in Construction, 68, 21–31, 2016.
19. A. Perrot, C. Lanos, Y. Mélinge, P. Estellé. Mortar Physical Properties Evolution in Extrusion Flow. Rheol. Acta 46, 1065–1073, 2007.
20. H. Lipson, M. Kurman. Fabricated: The New World of 3D Printing, John Wiley & Sons. 2013.
21. Print me a Stradivarius: How a New Manufacturing Technology Will Change the World. The Economist, Print Edition. Feb 12th 2011.
22. M. Jolin, D. Burns, B. Bissonnette, F. Gagnon, L.S. Bolduc. Understanding the Pumpability of Concrete, in: Proceedings Shotcrete for Underground Support XI, Engineering Conferences International, 2009.
23. V.H. Nguyen, S. Rémond, J.L. Gallias. Influence of Cement Grouts Composition on the Rheological Behavior. Cement and Concrete Research, 41, 292–300, 2011.
24. B. Panda, S. C. Paul, L. J. Hui, Y. W. D. Tay, M. J. Tan. Additive Manufacturing of Geopolymer for Sustainable Built Environment. Journal of Cleaner Production 167, 281-288, 2017.
25. B. Panda, M. J. Tan. Material Properties of 3D Printable High-Volume Slag Cement. 1st International Conference on 3D Printing (3DcP), 2018.
26. B. Panda, M. J. Tan. Experimental Study on Mix Proportion and Fresh Properties of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer for 3D Concrete Printing. Ceramics International 44, 10258-10265, 2018..
NB: Minor modifications to the scientific programme may occur.

Cultural Programme


Gain a richer perspective on the Hauts-de-France region!


The Hauts-de-France region is typified by its maritime and Flemish borders, agrarian economy, ancient trade fairs tradition, former textile and mine industries steeped in the Catholic values of its captains and vivid memory of wounds inflicted by two world wars. France’s youngest region is now renowned for its competitiveness, dynamic cultural and social life, and a unique mix of Flemish cheerfulness and French elegance.

  1. OLD LILLE: Guided tour of streets, squares and monuments of the old town and its beautiful ancient architecture.
  2. CH’TI EVENING: Local cuisine in a traditional restaurant and introduction to the Ch’ti linguistic and cultural specificity.
  3. BRUGES, BELGIUM: Free time in the charming old Flemish city, also known as “the Venice of the North” thanks to its beautiful canals.
  4. Keen on discovering more sights in North-West Europe? You will have the opportunity to participate in these optional activities:
      • EXCURSION TO THE COAST: Visit of the spectacular two Northern Capes Site (Opal Coast from which one can see the British cliffs).
      • FIREWORKS: Sightseeing of the great fireworks in Lille on the French National Day (July 14th).
      • Alternatively, you are free to travel wherever you want on your own expense.

A French Speaking World

Spoken by over 300 million people worldwide, French is a beautiful and fascinating language with a rich history and culture. Through this module, you will be taken through an original exploration of the French speaking world – relevant whether you are a beginner or a fluent French speaker!